Lucent 360 Case Study: Scaling Up

Lucent360™ Case Study:

Scaling Up: 100 mL reaction in the Lucent360™

The following reaction was performed at 100 mL scale (5 mmol) with the Lucent360™ batch reactor (HCK1021-01-007) at 450 nm equipped with nitrogen inlet/outlet ports, a septum for syringing in reagents/sampling and a temperature probe. (see photo above) The reaction is cooled by an external chiller set at 25 °C.  For scaling up the reaction, the concentration of the iridium catalyst was reduced by 10% from 1 mol % to 0.1 mol % from the corresponding 2 mL reaction.

Figure 1:

The 100 mL reaction was performed according to the following protocol (Table 1):

In the 700 mL Lucent 360 reactor, was added 54.9 mg Ni-glyme (5 mol %, 250 µmol), 67.1 mg dttbpy (5 mol %, 250 µmol) and 2.44 g Cs2CO3 (1.5 equiv., 7.5 mmol.  To the reactor was a 100 mL solution in DMSO containing 0.995 g bromoacetophenone (5 mmol) and 1.63 g Boc-Val-OH (1.5 equiv., 7.5 mmol).  5.61 mg Ir(dF-CF3-ppy)2(dtbbpy) (0.1 mol %, 5 µmol) was added as a 1 mL solution in DMSO.  The resulting solution was sparged with nitrogen for 15 minutes prior to turning on the LED’s and with a constant stream of nitrogen during the reaction.  The reaction was performed at 30 °C in the Lucent360™ with 5- 450 nm LED modules at 100% intensity.  Analytical samples were taken from each vial at 1,2 and 4 hours for analysis by LC-MS (10 µL dilution to 1 mL in DMSO.

At 1 hour, starting bromoacetophenone was completely consumed and 81% of the expected product was determined by LC-MS.

Reagent Equivalent Amount (µmol) Amount (mol) 0.001 M
bromoacetophenone 1 5000 0.005 995.20 mg
boc-Val-OH 1.5 7500 0.0075 1629.45 mg
Ir 0.001 5 0.000005 5.61 mg
“Ni” 0.05 250 0.00025 54.93 mg
dtbbpyp 0.05 250 0.00025 67.10 mg
Cs2CO3 1.5 7500 0.0075 2443.65 mg
solvent DMSO 0.05M 0.1 L

Actinometry experiments with 100 ml reaction in the Lucent360™ have determined an effective power of 40 W in the reactor.  This corresponds to a photon flux in the reactor at 150×10-6 einstein/s.  This value represents 150×10-6 moles of photons per second in the 100 mL reaction.

Based on our 81%, we estimated that 0.004 mol was produced in 60 minutes (3600 s) (1.13×10-6 mol/s) and the resulting quantum yield of the reaction would be 0.007.

Photocatalysis in Seawater

Seawater: It’s abundant, messy, contains salts, microorganisms, biomass, organic and inorganic pollutants (and microplastics) and might just be a great solvent for generating hydrogen peroxide with visible light photocatalysis

Comparing Commercial Photoreactors
When is an apple an apple or when is it an orange? How should we compare commercial photoreactors?  Or better yet, how do we discuss the important details of a...
The 21 Must-Read Photochemistry Papers of 2021
A belated year in review 2021 At HepatoChem, we had a big year in 2021. We started shipping our new photoreactor the Lucent360™, added members to our team, moved...
Utilizing the Lucent360 from screen to scale
A few weeks ago, we discussed the history of the Lucent360™, our new photoreactor for light and temperatures control for screen to scale, in both batch and flow....
Introducing the Lucent360 TM
A Brief History of a PhotoReactor We write from time to time here about the topics that we find interesting or humorous in the photoredox, visible-light photocatalysis...
Photochemistry of earth-abundant metals
A recurring theme for many of our articles over the last few months is that there just isn’t enough iridium or ruthenium in the earth’s crust to do all of the...
The Attack of the Photocatalytic Microrobots!
The attack of the photocatalytic microrobots! We have intended to write a bit about visible-light decomposition of contaminants for a while... so what better entry into...
Using Multiphoton Excitation To Generate Potent Photooxidants
A New Potent Photooxidant Pushing the limits of LED driven visible-light photocatalysis requires some creative thinking to get more redox potential out of the tools...
Petal Power: Organic Dyes in Photochemistry
Potpourri Catalysis – Fascinating Photoredox Chemistry With Organic Dyes
Spring is nearly here in Massachusetts.  The snow has almost completely melted, and the days are getting longer.  Soon the first flowers will bloom and some of those...
sarcastic 2020 logo
The 20 Must Read Photochemistry Papers from 2020
Year in review 2020.  Let’s all agree to not look back.  20 papers for 2020 As the year comes to the close, we thought it was time to have a little fun and look back at...
Photochemistry 101, Part III: Setting Up Your Initial Photochemistry Reactions
Setting Up Your Initial Photochemistry Reactions This is the third and final part of a three part series designed to help you get started by understanding light sources...

Contact Us

Interested in learning more about our products?

Complete our short contact form and we’ll get back to you as soon as possible.

Stay up-to-date!
Get insights and tips from experts