Lucent 360 Case Study: Scaling Up

Lucent360™ Case Study:

Scaling Up: 100 mL reaction in the Lucent360™

The following reaction was performed at 100 mL scale (5 mmol) with the Lucent360™ batch reactor (HCK1021-01-007) at 450 nm equipped with nitrogen inlet/outlet ports, a septum for syringing in reagents/sampling and a temperature probe. (see photo above) The reaction is cooled by an external chiller set at 25 °C.  For scaling up the reaction, the concentration of the iridium catalyst was reduced by 10% from 1 mol % to 0.1 mol % from the corresponding 2 mL reaction.

Figure 1:

The 100 mL reaction was performed according to the following protocol (Table 1):

In the 700 mL Lucent 360 reactor, was added 54.9 mg Ni-glyme (5 mol %, 250 µmol), 67.1 mg dttbpy (5 mol %, 250 µmol) and 2.44 g Cs2CO3 (1.5 equiv., 7.5 mmol.  To the reactor was a 100 mL solution in DMSO containing 0.995 g bromoacetophenone (5 mmol) and 1.63 g Boc-Val-OH (1.5 equiv., 7.5 mmol).  5.61 mg Ir(dF-CF3-ppy)2(dtbbpy) (0.1 mol %, 5 µmol) was added as a 1 mL solution in DMSO.  The resulting solution was sparged with nitrogen for 15 minutes prior to turning on the LED’s and with a constant stream of nitrogen during the reaction.  The reaction was performed at 30 °C in the Lucent360™ with 5- 450 nm LED modules at 100% intensity.  Analytical samples were taken from each vial at 1,2 and 4 hours for analysis by LC-MS (10 µL dilution to 1 mL in DMSO.

At 1 hour, starting bromoacetophenone was completely consumed and 81% of the expected product was determined by LC-MS.

Reagent Equivalent Amount (µmol) Amount (mol) 0.001 M
bromoacetophenone 1 5000 0.005 995.20 mg
boc-Val-OH 1.5 7500 0.0075 1629.45 mg
Ir 0.001 5 0.000005 5.61 mg
“Ni” 0.05 250 0.00025 54.93 mg
dtbbpyp 0.05 250 0.00025 67.10 mg
Cs2CO3 1.5 7500 0.0075 2443.65 mg
solvent DMSO 0.05M 0.1 L

Actinometry experiments with 100 ml reaction in the Lucent360™ have determined an effective power of 40 W in the reactor.  This corresponds to a photon flux in the reactor at 150×10-6 einstein/s.  This value represents 150×10-6 moles of photons per second in the 100 mL reaction.

Based on our 81%, we estimated that 0.004 mol was produced in 60 minutes (3600 s) (1.13×10-6 mol/s) and the resulting quantum yield of the reaction would be 0.007.

Lucent 360, photoredox, C-N couplings
Lucent360 Customized Reaction Screenings

Learn how to streamline with Lucent360 customized reaction screenings and save on time & setups when matching optimal wavelength to a photocatalyst.

Upcycling Plastic Using Light
Photocatalytic Deconstruction of Polystyrene

What if we could shine a blue LED on our 8 billion tons of plastic waste and get back a valuable chemical feedstock? Click to read about the Reisner group’s work looking at tackling this problem.

photocatalysis in seawater
Photocatalysis in Seawater

Seawater: It’s abundant, messy, contains salts, microorganisms, biomass, organic and inorganic pollutants (and microplastics) and might just be a great solvent for generating hydrogen peroxide with visible light photocatalysis

Comparing Commercial Photoreactors

How should we compare commercial photoreactors? Or better yet, how do we discuss the important details of a photochemical reaction?

The 21 Must-Read Photochemistry Papers of 2021

Beyond the best photochemistry papers of 2021, read about the amazing year we had here at HepatoChem.

Utilizing the Lucent360 From Screen to Scale

Read on for a step by step study taking a photocatalyzed-Arbuzov reaction from screen to scale utilizing the unique features of the Lucent360™

Introducing the Lucent360

The Lucent360’s flexible design gives you the best options to learn everything you need to know to take your photochemical reactions from screen to scale.

Photochemistry of earth-abundant metals

A recurring theme in our recent articles: there isn’t enough iridium or ruthenium in the earth’s crust to do all the photochemistry we’d like to do at scale.

The Attack of the Photocatalytic Microrobots!

Self-propelled autonomous microrobots that can swim through mazes to seek and destroy microplastics? Read on…

Using Multiphoton Excitation To Generate Potent Photooxidants

Our review of a recent Wickens paper describing the formation of powerful new photooxidants through a mechanism of multiphoton excitation.

Petal Power: Organic Dyes in Photochemistry
Potpourri Catalysis – Fascinating Photoredox Chemistry With Organic Dyes

Add dried flower petals to your photochemistry reaction? This group did. Their paper on photoredox chemistry with organic dyes is brilliant.

Contact Us

Interested in learning more about our products?

Complete our short contact form and we’ll get back to you as soon as possible.

Stay up-to-date!
Get insights and tips from experts